This review article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of recent epidemiology, pathogenesis, risk factors, and premalignant conditions of gastric cancer. Worldwide, gastric cancer is one of the most common and most fatal cancers. The incidence and mortality remain high in regions such as East Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is a lower incidence in the United States, it remains a deadly disease. Age, gender, and race are non-modifiable demographic risk factors for developing gastric cancer. There have been several dietary and lifestyle risk factors such as salt preserved foods, N-nitroso compounds containing foods, tobacco smoke, alcohol use, and obesity that have been shown to contribute to the development of gastric cancer. Infections have additionally been shown to have a clear role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer as Helicobacter pylori eradication has shown a significant reduction in the incidence of gastric cancer as well as other pathogens such as Epstein-Barr virus. There are certain premalignant lesions that increase the risk of developing gastric cancer. These include atrophic gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia amongst others.
Grantham, Tyler; Ramachandran, Rajarajeshwari; Parvataneni, Swetha; Budh, Deepa; Gollapalli, Sindhu; and Gaduputi, Vinaya
"Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer: Global Trends, Risk Factors and Premalignant Conditions,"
Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives: Vol. 13:
6, Article 23.
Available at: https://scholarlycommons.gbmc.org/jchimp/vol13/iss6/23