The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma, an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis, is increasing. Hepatitis B and C have been well established as predisposing factors for this malignancy. The availability and efficacy of treatment for hepatitis C infection has led to a substantial reduction in viral hepatitis-related cholangiocarcinoma mortality. Despite treatment, the potential for developing cholangiocarcinoma continues to exist for patients with underlying cirrhosis.
We present a patient who was effectively treated for hepatitis C with direct-acting antiviral therapy eight years prior. He presented with malaise, fatigue, and an unintentional weight loss of 40 pounds. Imaging revealed a metastatic malignancy, and a liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma and the absence of underlying cirrhosis in the background liver. This case highlights the persistent risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma despite achieving sustained viral response to treatment for hepatitis C. We review the associated literature and briefly discuss the predisposing conditions that might result in such an outcome. We also encourage the need for long-term surveillance for such patients and the importance of conducting more multi-center studies to identify at-risk patients and develop cost-effective screening protocols.
Shaik, Mohammed Rifat; Shaik, Nishat Anjum; Bilgrami, Zaid; Wheeler, Erika; and Chow, Robert Td
"A Call to Action: Cholangiocarcinoma in the Setting of Sustained Hepatitis C Virologic Response – Case Report and Review of Literature,"
Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives: Vol. 13:
4, Article 8.
Available at: https://scholarlycommons.gbmc.org/jchimp/vol13/iss4/8